The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Carl B

Carl Borrebaeck


Carl B

Psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a non-clinical population in Sweden


  • Katarina Velickovic
  • Ingalill Rahm Hallberg
  • Ulrika Axelsson
  • Carl A.K. Borrebaeck
  • Lisa Rydén
  • Per Johnsson
  • Johanna Månsson

Summary, in English

Background: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) is the most widely used scale which assesses psychological resilience. Although it is recommended to be applied as a unidimensional scale, its factor structure, reliability, as well as discriminant and predictive validity need to be assessed when used in a new context. Moreover, the original five-factor structure has not been replicated in previous investigations. This study aimed to explore psychometric properties of the scale in a Swedish context. Methods: Construct validity of the five-factor model of CD-RISC was assessed using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses. Its discriminant validity was assessed in relation to a measure of emotion regulation (Brief Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Predictive validity of CD-RISC was assessed in relation to measures of physical and mental health-related quality of life (The 12-Item Short Form Survey) using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. A population based sample cohort was employed (N = 2599). Results: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses suggested a 22-item unidimensional model of CD-RISC. Psychological resilience was found to be independent from the measure of emotion regulation. It was shown to predict both physical and mental health-related quality of life, being especially strongly associated with mental health aspects. Conclusions: The study showed that the Swedish version of CD-RISC is an instrument with high discriminant and predictive validity, although the original factor structure does not apply in this context. CD-RISC can thus be used to identify individuals with a higher need of psychosocial support, especially relating to mental health needs.


  • Department of Psychology
  • Health-promoting Complex Interventions
  • Department of Immunotechnology
  • Create Health
  • LUCC: Lund University Cancer Centre
  • Surgery (Lund)

Publishing year





Health and Quality of Life Outcomes





Document type

Journal article


BioMed Central (BMC)


  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


  • Construct validity
  • DERS-16
  • Discriminant validity
  • Emotion regulation
  • Health-related quality of life
  • Predictive validity
  • Psychological resilience
  • SF-12



Research group

  • Health-promoting Complex Interventions


  • ISSN: 1477-7525