Genome-wide comparison of phage M13-infected vs. uninfected Escherichia coli
Ann-Christin Malmborg Hager
Summary, in English
To identify Escherichia coli genes potentially regulated by filamentous phage infection, we used oligonucleotide microarrays. Genome-wide comparison of phage M13-infected and uninfected E. coli, 2 and 20 min after infection, was performed. The analysis revealed altered transcription levels of 12 E. coli genes in response to phage infection, and the observed regulation of phage genes correlated with the known in vivo pattern of M13 mRNA species. Ten of the 12 host genes affected could be grouped into 3 different categories based on cellular function, suggesting a coordinated response. The significantly upregulated genes encode proteins involved in reactions of the energy-generating phosphotransferase system and transcription processing, which could be related to phage transcription. No genes belonging to any known E. coli stress response pathways were scored as upregulated. Furthermore, phage infection led to significant downregulation of transcripts of the bacterial genes gadA, gadB, hdeA, gadE, slp, and crl. These downregulated genes are normally part of the host stress response mechanisms that protect the bacterium during conditions of acid stress and stationary phase transition. The phage-infected cells demonstrated impaired function of the oxidative and the glutamate-dependent acid resistance systems. Thus, global transcriptional analysis and functional analysis revealed previously unknown host responses to filamentous phage infection.